“Processing quality of Chinese wheats needs improvement”
Since 1995 cultivar DIVANA has been the best bread making wheat in Croatia (perhaps even in Europe).
The cross-section of bread loaf made from the same amount of flour of standard quality cv. Siroka (left) and excellent quality cv. DIVANA (right). Bread yield for cv. Siroka is 148 g/100 g, and for cv. DIVANA 162 g/100 g of flour.
Flour made from cv. DIVANA is recommended for improvement of other poor flours in process of bread making due to its extraordinary quality.
Recent researches pointed on low Cd accumulation in grain of cv. DIVANA. Low-Cd cultivars can be grown on Cd contaminated soil as a tool to reduce the risk of toxic metal movement into human diet.
Rheological parameters of excelent quality cultivar DIVANA…
…compared to the parameters of standard cultivar SIROKA
In ancient China wheat gluten was used as a meat substitute.
Mainly it is prepared as:
1. yóu miàn jīn (油麵筋), miàn jīn qiú (面筋球) or miàn jīn pao (面筋泡)
2. zhēng miàn jīn (蒸麵筋) or miàn lún (麵輪) and
3. kǎo fū (烤麸)
Fresh and preserved miàn jīn can be used to simulate pork, poultry, beef, or even seafood.
But, there are big difference between cultivars in amount and quality of gluten. Wet gluten readings of our wheat cultivars (bold) in comparison with one well known France cultivar (Renan), and two Austrian wheats (Edison and Ludwig) are presented in table:
Mean wet gluten for six cultivars grown at three locations in Croatia
(Vrpolje, Kutjevo and Belje in 2005)
|No.||Cultivar||Wet gluten (%)|
Acording to the Chinese grading system for high-gluten flour at least 30% gluten is needed (A. Zhang).
Experimental pasta production performed in the pasta factory “CROATIA” Osijek. Standard methods
(Official Gazette 53/83) were used. Organoleptic evaluation done by 10 evaluators at Osijek University.
by Prof. Dr. Zaneta Ugarcic-Hardi,
Osijek University, Croatia
1. By planting a seed mixture:
In dense population and higher N application the excellent quality cv. Divana is prone to lodging and it is not possible to improve rather low grain yield.
By use a seed mixture of cv. Divana (110 cm) and cv. Koleda (90 cm) or Cerera (90 cm) in mercantile grain production this problem could be solved.
Grain yield will be improved, and high grain quality will be retained.
Suggested seed ratio Divana : Koleda is 1:2 or 1:3 but for the best results additional experiments should be performed in specific environment.
In this way obtained yield could be even higher than that of cv. Koleda, and grain quality could be similar to that of cv. Divana. The Role of Wheat Cultivars Blend on Grain Yield and Backing Quality
2. By adopting a SCI (System of Crop Intensification):
Additional boosting of yields is possible if sufficient organic matter can be provided to the soil – little or no inorganic fertilizer is required and there is little if any need for agrochemicals in crop protection against pests and diseases. Requirements for seed, as well as for irrigation water are reduced.
Agriculture in the 21st century must be practiced differently from the previous century; land and water resources are becoming relatively scarcer.
In two years (2011 and 2012), in Austria cv. Vesna was top yielding cultivar in comparison between 50 other wheats.
|Cultivar||Average grain yield for 4 locations (t/ha)||Days to heading||Plant height (cm)||Disease attack in % (UK National List Trials Protocol)|
|Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici||Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici||Septoria spp.||Fusarium spp.|